This article explains in brief Socialization in Sociology, stages of socialization, its agencies, types, importance, and role of culture in socialization.

Stages of Socialization in Sociology

There are four stages of Socialization. They are:

First Stage: The first stage is known as the Oral Stage

Second Stage: The second stage is known as the Anal Stage.

Third Stage: It is known as the Oedipal Stage.

Fourth Stage: Further, the fourth stage is known as Adolescence Stage.

The Oral Stage: The first stage begins with the birth of the child up to the completion of 1 year.

The Anal Stage: The second stage normally begins soon after the first year and is completed during the third year.

The Oedipal Stage: The third stage extends from about the fourth year to puberty, (age of 12-13 years).

The Adolescence Stage: this stage starts with a period of adolescence.

Agencies of Socialization:

The agencies of socialization are:

Family and Parents

According to Kingsley Davis, the family has several characteristics that give it a strategic importance in socialization. They are as follows:

  1. The family gets the child first.
  2. The family is the most persistent factor in a child’s life.
  3. Also, the family is a primary group.
  4. The family is connected with the satisfaction of all the needs of the child.
  5. The members of the family are identified with one another by the general community.


There has been a growth in the importance of the school as a socializing agent in modern society primarily because the structure of knowledge has become more complex. There is also greater emphasis given to education in a formal institution as opposed to the earlier method of socialization by informal means within the family. The communications the students received from their teachers help to socialize them to make them finally mature members of their society.

Peers and Age-Mates

Strickly the term ‘Peer Group’ should describe any group of equals according to some stated criteria. For example, a debate team. But here it is used to define a group made up of people who are of the same age. Peer Groups also mean those groups made up of the contemporaries of the child, his associates in school in the playing group, and in the street.

The Literature and Mass Media of Education

This is another source of socialization. This is of course found only in literate societies, i.e. the literature, the civilization that we shared is constructed of words of literature. The media of mass communication give us their messages. The authors and editors and advertisers join the teachers, the peer, and also the parents in the socialization process.

The Types of Socialization in Sociology

In fact, there are four types of socialization. They are:

Primary Socialization

It takes place during the early years of the life of an individual. Only after the teaching of parents, mainly concentrates on teaching language, cognitive skills, even emotional ties. Further, the primary types of socialization are very essential.

This type of socialization is the most essential and basic type of socialization. It takes place in the early years of the life of newborn individuals.

In fact, it concentrates on the teaching of language and cognitive skills, the internalization of cultural norms and values, the establishment of emotional ties, and the appreciation of other roles and perspectives.

Anticipatory Socialization

As human beings, we try to belong or anticipate like the other members of the community.

Development Socialization

This type of socialization builds on already acquired skills and knowledge as the adult progress through a new situation, such as marriage or new jobs. These require new expectations, obligations, and roles. New learning is added to and blended with all in a relatively smooth and continuous process of development.

Importance of Socialization in Sociology

  1. It contributes to the development of personality.
  2. It contributes to the learning of rules of social behavior.
  3. The process of socialization assists an individual and only to learn the norms associated with roles, but also to develop appropriate attitudes to enact those rules.
  4. Further, socialization is a way of training the newborn individual in certain skills which are required to lead a normal social life

Role of Culture in Socialization

  1. Socialization is culture learning.
  2. Culture defines situations.
  3. Also, culture defines attitudes, values, and goals. Attitudes refer to the tendency to feel and accept in certain ways. Values are the measure of goodness and desirability. Goals refer to the attainments which our values define as worthy.

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